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Major Time Periods in History


Stone Age
The researcher wondered how was life in the earliest period and how did they survive in their daily life? The term “Stone Age” was created by the Danish scholar Christian J. Thomsen during the late 19th century that came up with a framework for the study of the human past which is known as the “Three Age System” (Violatti, 2014). This period was recognized by the primarily stone tools and weapons that were widely used in a small or nomadic group. This period was prehistoric and lasted for up to 3.4 million years and ended between 8700 and 2000 BCE.
During this period, the planet Earth was in an Ice Age wherein, this is a period of glacial expansion and colder global temperature. People survived during this period in the invention of a clay pot which is generally used to cook food and store things. They ate meats, fish, eggs, grasses, tubers, fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts. A bow drill was also invented during this period, it is a simple rotational hand-operated tool that was used to drill holes into carnelian and lapis lazuli.

Bronze Age
How does this age evolve at that time? Who coined the term and who discovered bronze? The bronze is consisting of the tin when combined with copper then it became the primary material for making tools and weapons. At the beginning of this period, they called it “Chalcolithic Age” and this period occurred between the Stone Age and Iron Age with a period between 3500 and 1200 BCE. It was also originated by Christian J. Thomsen with his framework called “Three Age System”. This period marked the first-time usage of metal and most of the ancient Sumerians in the Middle East may have been the first people to enter this age. They made advancements in technologies like the invention of soap with three main ingredients – cassia oil, water, and Alkali. The rope is also another invention of this age with a material of water reed fiber.

Iron Age
In this age, it was not a single period that happened at the same time around the world because the Iron Age was identified by using iron for tools and weapons. It was also named by Christian J. Thomsen with his framework “Three Age System” – starting with the Stone Age, then the Bronze Age and lastly the final age, the Iron Age. The period was started differently, beginning in the Middle East and southeastern Europe about 1200 BCE but in China, not until about 600 BCE. In Asia, Egypt, and Europe it was preceded by the Bronze Age, it was not started in the Americas until the coming of Europeans. Egyptians had worn iron beads as early as 4000 BC, but these were meteoric iron, they discovered these through the rubbing process wherein it was used in shaping implements of stone. They invented also an Iron Sword that was mainly used as their weapon in a war that leads them into a violent war.

Ancient Civilization
In this period, there are plenty of civilizations that have been occurred because they are looking for the first settled stable communities that will become their basis for later empires, nations, and states. The most popular writing system during this period is the Hieroglyphs of Egypt with the invention of paper and it was made from the pith of papyrus plant. According to Word Atlas, Mesopotamia civilization is considered the oldest, but some researchers believe that Aboriginal Australian is the oldest. The first six civilizations are Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley (Harappa), Andes, China, and Mesoamerica then they are independently arisen of each other in approximately 6000 to 3500 years ago. The reader may be surprised by this, they also invented the number zero “0” to show the difference between 10 and 100, without this invention, we may do not have any high-end technologies because in programming a system they are mostly using one and zero.

Medieval Period
The researcher would wonder if he can live in this period but after further research, it was still tough to be part of this period due to endless wars. According to History, the Medieval Period or Middle Age was to characterize Europe between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and continued until Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World in 1492 and the beginning of the Renaissance in the 14th century. The term of this period was created by Italian humanists with unenviable intent. In this period, to show devotion to the church, they build cathedrals and monasteries. Cathedrals were also the largest building in Europe during the Medieval Period. In the 15th century, the printing press was invented including books. They also invented the mechanical clock to keep their schedule on track including hours, minutes, and seconds that would change their habits or ways in daily life. and it was displayed in roman numerals.

Modern Period

In this period, this is what peoples belong in the present. Global communities are now experiencing modern technologies and great innovations. But before they made people’s life easier, this period is divided into two – the early modern period and the late modern period. According to Wikipedia, this period approximately started in the mid-18th century and includes that period up to the present day. These remarkable historical milestones collaborated to make this period possible including the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, and the Russian Revolution. The telephone was invented last 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, with this technology, we can communicate with each other up until now with the advancement of technologies. From wired telephones, it is now handy due to the smartphone that was firstly invented by Steve Jobs, a founder of Apple Inc. These technologies could help to make one’s life easier and the researcher conclude that there are still future high-end technologies coming these next few years.

References:
10 things you (probably) didn't know about the Middle Ages. (2019, March 20). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.historyextra.com/period/medieval/middle-ages-facts-what-customs-writers-knights-serfs-marriage-travel/
Ancient history. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_history
Braidwood, R. et al. (2019, December 18). Stone Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Stone-Age
Stone Age. (n.d.). Retrieved February 3, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Age
Bronze Age. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age
Great Modern Inventions that Changed the World. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.biographyonline.net/scientists/modern-inventions.html
History.com Editors. (2010, April 22). Middle Ages. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.history.com/topics/middle-ages/middle-ages
History.com Editors. (2018, January 12). Stone Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.history.com/topics/pre-history/stone-age
History.com Editors. (2018, January 2). Bronze Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.history.com/topics/pre-history/bronze-age
History.com Editors. (2018, January 3). Iron Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.history.com/topics/pre-history/iron-age
Iron Age. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Age
Late modern period. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_modern_period
Middle Ages. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages
Misachi, J. (2018, November 9). 10 of the World’s Oldest Civilizations. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/10-of-the-world-s-oldest-civilizations.html
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019, November 15). Bronze Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Bronze-Age
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019, May 20). Iron Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Iron-Age
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019, November 26). Middle Ages. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/event/Middle-Ages
Violatti, C. (2014, July 18). Stone Age. Retrieved February 5, 2020, from https://www.ancient.eu/Stone_Age/

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